\documentclass[11pt]{article}
\usepackage{fullpage}
\usepackage{amsfonts}
\newcommand{\np}{\mathop{\rm NP}}
\newcommand{\binom}[2]{{#1 \choose #2}}
\newcommand{\Z}{{\mathbb Z}}
\newcommand{\vol}{\mathop{\rm Vol}}
\newcommand{\conp}{\mathop{\rm co-NP}}
\newcommand{\atisp}{\mathop{\rm ATISP}}
\renewcommand{\vec}[1]{{\mathbf #1}}
%\input{dansmacs}
\begin{document}
\noindent {\large Essential Coding Theory \hfill
Lecturer: Madhu Sudan\\[-.1in]
6.440 \hfill TA: Swastik Kopparty\\[-.1in]
Due: Wednesday, February 13, 2008\hfill \mbox{}\\[.4in]}
{\LARGE \centering Problem Set 1 (Revised 02/06/08) \\[.4in] \par}
\section*{Instructions}
\begin{description}
\item[References:]
In general, try not to run to reference material to answer
questions. Try to think about the problem to see if you can
solve it without consulting any external sources. If this fails,
you may look up any reference material.
\item[Collaboration:]
Collaboration is allowed, but try to limit yourselves to
groups of size at most four.
\item[Writeup:]
You must write the solutions by yourselves.
Cite all references and collaborators.
Explain why you needed to consult any of the references,
if you did consult any.
Submit the solutions electronically as a pdf file.
Deadline is 11pm on due date.
\end{description}
\section*{Problems}
\begin{enumerate}
\item {\sf (Linear Algebra Review):} {\bf (Need not be turned in.)}
\begin{enumerate}
\item Given a $k \times n$ matrix
$G$ with 0/1 entries, of rank $k$ over $\Z_2$,
generating a linear code
$C = \{\vec x \cdot G | \vec x\}$,
show that there exists an $n \times m$ matrix $H$, (henceforth
referred to as the parity check matrix), such that $C =
\{\vec y | \vec y H = \vec 0\}$. What is the relationship
between $m$, $n$ and $k$ above?
\item Give an efficient algorithm to compute such an $H$, given
$G$, and vice versa.
\item Give an explicit description of the generator matrix
of a Hamming code of block length $2^{\ell}-1$.
\end{enumerate}
%
\item {\sf (Binary Hamming code \& bound):}
\begin{enumerate}
\item Prove that for every positive integer $\ell$, there
is a ``Hamming'' code mapping $2^{\ell} - \ell - 1$ bit
messages to $2^{\ell}-1$-bit codewords that can correct
any single bit error, and that this is optimal. Specifically:
\item Describe the ``generator matrix'' $G$ and ``parity check''
matrix $H$ for this code. (The description need not be fully
explicit --- it suffices to describe it to the extent that one
can perform encoding and decoding in polynomial time.)
\item Prove that the matrices above lead to a code correcting
single bit errors.
\item Prove that no single bit error-correcting code of length
$2^{\ell} - 1$ can have more codewords than the code you've
designed.
\end{enumerate}
\item (Extra Credit Question) For general $\Sigma$, give the best
construction you can of a code over alphabet $\Sigma$
of minimum distance $3$. (What can you do when $|\Sigma|$ is a
power of a prime number? What can you do in other cases?)
\item {\sf (Pairwise independent spaces):}
A set $S \subseteq \{0,1\}^n$ is a {\em pairwise independent}
space, if, for every pair $i \ne j \in \{1,\ldots,x\}$, it
is the case that if you pick a random element of $S$ and
project it onto the $i$th coordinate and $j$the coordinate
you get a {\em pair} of independent bits drawn uniformly
from $\{0,1\}$.
\begin{enumerate}
\item Let $H$ be the $(2^{\ell} - 1) \times \ell$ parity check
matrix of a binary Hamming code. Show that the collection of
vectors $S = \{\vec x H^T | \vec x \in \{0,1\}^\ell\}$ forms
a pairwise independent space. ($H^T$ denotes the transpose of $H$.)
\item (Extra Credit Question) Show that any pairwise independent
space on $n$ bits must contain at least $n+1$ points.
\end{enumerate}
\item {\sf The Hat Problem:}
{\em {\bf Oops!} The earlier version of the pset was missing
the description of the hat problem. Added now. Sorry!}
The Hat Problem involves $n$ people in a room, each of whom
is given a black/white hat chosen uniformly at random (and
independent of the choices of all other people). Each person
can see the hat color of all other people, but not their own.
Each person is asked if (s)he wishes to guess their own hat
color. They can either guess, or abstain. Each person makes
their choice without knowledge of what the other people are
doing.
They either win
collectively, or lose collectively. They win if all the people
who don't abstain guess their hat color correctly {\em and}
at least one person does not abstain. They lose if all people
abstain, or if some person guesses their color incorrectly.
Your goal below is to come up with a strategy that will allow
the $n$ people to win, with pretty high probability. The
problem involves some careful modelling, and some knowledge
of Hamming codes!
\begin{enumerate}
\item Lets say that a directed graph $G$ is a subgraph of the
$n$-dimensional hypercube if its vertex set is $\{0,1\}^n$
and if $u \to v$ is an edge in $G$, then $u$ and $v$ differ in
at most one coordinate. Let $K(G)$ be the number of vertices
of $G$ with in-degree at least one, and out-degree zero.
Show that the probability of winning the hat problem equals
the maximum, over directed subgraphs $G$ of the $n$-dimensional
hypercube, of $K(G)/2^n$.
\item Using the fact that the out-degree of any vertex is at most
$n$, show that $K(G)/2^n$ is at most $\frac{n}{n+1}$ for any
directed subgraph $G$ of the $n$-dimensional hypercube.
\item Show that if $n = 2^{\ell} -1$, then there exists a directed
subgraph $G$ of the $n$-dimensional hypercube with $K(G)/2^n =
\frac{n}{n+1}$. (This is where the Hamming code comes in.)
\end{enumerate}
\end{enumerate}
\end{document}